Paris Match. On the eve of the new school year, more than 15,000 students are waiting for a response to their training post bac. You said that ParcoursSup was a system “more rational” and “more human” than its predecessor BPA. Think you still have it?
Jean-Michel Blanquer. Unquestionably. The vast majority of the candidates an assignment. The work carried out has allowed to avoid a random draw deeply unfair. ParcoursSup is more humane : a second class teacher accompanies the Terminal and, until September 21, the commissions rectorales help students find a place. The chains in tension are reinforced. We have also facilitated the access of high school graduates to professionals to BTS, where they are more successful, by creating new spaces. It is important to remember that. In the past, it was too diverted from these subjects, merely to deplore the damage caused by the failure rate at the end of their first year at the university.
Fourteen months after your arrival, what observations can you make of the reforms that you have undertaken?
In the past, the national education has been caricaturée as an institution as its size, condemned to immobility. We are in the process of showing that its size does not prevent it to be agile. In the years to come, we will find a France where everyone knows how to read, to write, to count and to respect others. The duplication of the CP class in the priority education is a measure of social justice to be very deep since it will go to the root of academic difficulties. We are fighting as soon as possible the first inequality, one related to language. With such duplication, we also caused a positive psychological effect on the families, the teachers and the country as a whole, for which it creates a hope. This measure, like that of compulsory schooling from three years old in 2019, will be watched with great interest abroad. My goal is that our country is proud of its school.
How many students will be affected in the back by the duplication?
Last year, the CP class of 12 students involved 60 000 of them. This year, the measure was extended to all the CP Rep and+ Rep, and 70% of the CE1 of+ Rep. In all, 190 000 students will benefit. This measure, when it will have arrived at maturity in September 2019, which will affect 20% of a generation, that is exactly the proportion of pupils in great difficulty at the exit of the primary school. We have created 3881 posts of teachers in the first degree, of which around 3000 for the duplication of the CP. The other 800 are used to ensure a better rate coaching in all departments.
“The school should not be the psychodrama as it is for several years”
Have you solved the problem of lack of premises to accommodate these new classes?
Thanks to the responsiveness of the joint to accommodate or find local, in 89% of cases last year, the teacher was alone in a class with 12 students. This year, since it goes from 60 000 to 190 000 students involved, this will be the case 80% of them. The other will work with two teachers in front of 24 students.
Would you expect a rapid improvement of results of the France in the international surveys?
These surveys reflect developments over several years, but the survey PIRLS in 2021 will be interesting to watch, as it will look on CM1 who have benefited from the classes split.
To find positions, have you drawn in the device “more teachers than classes” introduced by your predecessor?
It remains today one-half of these positions relative to 2016. They are allocated according to local criteria. The priority for the primary school is also reflected by an increase in the budget.
Are you going to change the rules of the school map?
The school map should not be the psychodrama as it is for several years. We must get a system that is more subtle and more reasonable, particularly in rural areas where national Education has been working with the departments to maintain the facilities, despite the sharp demographic decline. The ratios are higher compared to the national average : 14 students per class in the Cantal region, 15 in the Vendée, 16 in Lozère, for example. It is nevertheless necessary to ensure that the rural schools will be attractive to contribute to the rebound in population is indispensable. In fact, we have a proactive strategy for the rural world.
And for the urban areas?
The social mix is a major challenge. We can contribute to them by the school map. But the main lever is to make the establishments attractive. Restore the classes bilangues or the ancient languages in the colleges are disadvantaged, as we have done, allows them to réattirer middle class families. We will promote educational projects to be original and ambitious in the territories of the most disadvantaged.
“The reform of the Tray is the proof that it is possible to obtain a consensus”
Your reform of the Tray is placed without clashes, while Xavier Darcos, or François Fillon had to withdraw their projects in the face of discontent. Why?
It corresponds to a need felt by the company. This is the proof that it is possible to obtain a consensus around the transformations that are indispensable to the modernization of France. The consultations carried out with 40 000 secondary school students and all of the actors have been crucial. The surveys show us that the students adhere massively to this reform, which has opened large possibilities of choice. The new tray and the removal of the series S, ES and L, will enable them to better engage in their graduate studies. Students who have entered this year in the second will be the first to benefit.
Are you going to reform the college?
I don’t want to upset the system as a whole, nor to make reforms to make reforms. We introduced the device of “homework” in all the colleges in order to meet the minimum educational and to compensate for inequalities in family. More than 515 682 college students have benefited, or 25% of them. Again, there was skepticism about the implementation, it is carried out and will deepen this year.
Are you considering, as was committed by Emmanuel Macron during his campaign, to give more autonomy to institutions?
It will create a attractiveness, empower, and strengthen the trust between the actors. In high school, this will be the autonomy to take advantage of the benefits offered by the reform of the bachelor’s degree. In the primary school and college, we must continue to ensure a certain degree of homogeneity corresponding to the common base that we want for all students. This goes hand in hand with educational projects to be ambitious in each institution.
The deans will they be able to recruit themselves teachers?
Without going from one extreme to the other, we will develop the logic of post-profile, that will establish a consistency between the educational project of a school and the desires of the professors in their career development. The head of the school will have more leeway. The logic of the future will be a logical team. The institutions that succeed are those where there is a collective spirit in the service of a project.
You are in favour of the wearing of uniforms, how many schools restore?
I simply note that a number of initiatives see the light of day. The uniform can result in a feeling of pride and belonging. When there is local buy-in, this may be one answer to the consumerism that characterizes our society and accentuates social inequalities, even in the playgrounds. In this context, we have to ban mobile phone in school and college. The school of the Republic form citizens, not consumers.
In terms of digital, not a question of “distribute tablets such as the sower distributes the wheat”
You have presented a digital plan. What means do you?
The investment plan for the future represents 300 million euros over the five year period. But money is not everything. We need to move on to a phase more relevant to the digital policies. We are building a framework of trust with personal data protection and awareness against ill-uses, such as cyber-harassment, the sites that are violent or pornographic… We are also going to learn how to code as early as primary school, and create at high school the subject “computer science”. It is a policy more substantial than distributing tablets such as the sower distributes the wheat… The digital competence of in-depth of our students will be able to develop, but in a sense of humanism.
The teaching profession is facing a crisis of vocations, many positions remain unfilled in the contest. How to contain it?
There is an issue on the prestige of the function. I would like a speech very positively on the faculty, I request the French society of support and respect. A company that goes well, loves his school and his teachers. It is my role that it is so. We will also act on aspects that are more tangible, such as expanding the housing options of the teachers and improving their purchasing power. A first premium of 1000 euros will be granted to more than 45 000 agents who work REP+.
The next bonuses will be in part allocated according to performance criteria?
We are discussing with the trade union organisations. We want them to contribute to the success of the students. The aim of the priority education should not be to compensate the difficulty, but to enhance the success. Incentive mechanisms could also be collective, by institution, for example.
“The assisted contracts were a response to precarious structural problems”
The recommendations that you have addressed to teachers have been perceived by unions as a form of “contempt” and a questioning of the pedagogical freedom…
The first priority, what are the basic knowledge in primary school : to read, to write, to count, to respect others. These recommendations provide a cap based on the leading-edge scientific research and findings in the field. They have been caricaturées, but I observe that the objections focused on the form and not on the bottom. I invite everyone to show me that there were elements that were incorrect or counterproductive in their content : if this was the case, we would evolve. In addition, the feedback we have reflected a strong membership of teachers and parents in these recommendations. The true social justice, it is to put the bar as high as possible to ensure that all students have the same advantages.
Last year, the removal of many supported contracts has led to malfunctions in the schools, to the point of delaying some revenues. This phenomenon will he breed this year, while their number is still falling?
No. The supported contracts were a response to precarious structural problems, such as the enrollment of 300,000 children with disabilities. For the latter, we have created more than 10 000 posts of companions (AESH) whose contracts are more robust and provide 60 hours of training. For this season there will be more companions in order to meet the increased need for disabled children to attend school, and for the first time, these missions will mainly be provided by AESH and no longer by supported employment.
The number of children diagnosed with a disability has tripled in ten years. You create items, but the associations question the relevance of these measures. Their answer-you?
For the past twenty years, France has improved the reception of disability in hiring personnel. On the other hand, on the qualitative level, we need to make progress in ensuring a better training of the entire educational community and refining the care closer to the needs on the ground. The goal of the inclusive school is among my top priorities. We are working a lot with Sophie Cluzel.
The national Education will be affected by the decline in positions in the public service?
To be consistent with the priority given to the primary school, the first degree is sanctuarisé. We will even create positions. We will have more rigorous management in the second degree. This is rational, since France is below the average of the OECD countries for its expenditure for the primary school and above in respect of secondary education.
“The notoriety of my name is not an issue”
You should adhere to the “same time” even before it is theorized by applicant. He disappeared in the chair?
On the contrary ! The “same time” is more relevant than ever. The “free and protect” is applied in all fields, in particular in the education sector. Bad roads are taken when we are trying to create false divisions by a certain extrémisation of thought, while the good French solution is to combine elements that are complementary to our engineering, national. For example, the cartesian rigour and artistic creativity. It is for this reason that I promote both the consolidation of basic knowledge and education in the arts.
A magazine, “The Point”, you dubbed him the vice-president. It relates to your role in the Macronie?
I have never claimed such a thing. I am the minister of Education, and that’s enough. My goal is to contribute in my field, the progress of France in the next five years.
Half (48%) of French people say they don’t know you enough to decide on you, according to our barometer Fifg. Is this a problem?
The notoriety of my name is not an issue. At the end of a year, this is quite normal. Nobody was able to name all the ministers of the previous governments. The gist of it is that everyone knows that there is a minister of national Education, which leads to a policy in the service of student success. And the polls show precisely one of the strong adhesion of the French to the measures taken in the field of the school.
Do you plan to introduce the european or the local elections?
I will, as minister, to the campaign of the european because it is essential that Europe finds a central role in a world that is experiencing such errors. But I will not be presenting myself, because it is important that I am very focused on my mission to the minister of national Education.
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