Want to lose weight AND beat diabetes? Skip breakfast with these lunch and dinner recipes

The mantra ‘eat little and often’ is one that many of us have lived by over the years, thinking that it’s good for our health.

But, as I discovered, if you have type 2 diabetes or want to lose weight, this may not be helpful advice.

I loved my food and snacked all the time, but I learned the hard way that every time I ate, digestive hormones and insulin (the hormone we produce to control sugar levels in our blood) were produced to break down the food I was eating — which meant my system never got a breather.

Instead, I was perpetually producing insulin to combat the excess sugar in my bloodstream from the high-carb food I was constantly grazing on.

Chef Giancarlo Caldesi (left) pictured with Dr David Unwin  at the restaurant Caffe Caldesi in London. Together they have written the book 'Low Carb Diet for Diabetes Cookbook'

Chef Giancarlo Caldesi (left) pictured with Dr David Unwin  at the restaurant Caffe Caldesi in London. Together they have written the book 'Low Carb Diet for Diabetes Cookbook'

Chef Giancarlo Caldesi (left) pictured with Dr David Unwin  at the restaurant Caffe Caldesi in London. Together they have written the book ‘Low Carb Diet for Diabetes Cookbook’

I now know that having proper breaks between meals ¿ also known as intermittent fasting ¿ is accepted by many doctors as a healthier way to eat, particularly for someone like me who is trying to manage type 2 diabetes, says chef Caldesi

I now know that having proper breaks between meals ¿ also known as intermittent fasting ¿ is accepted by many doctors as a healthier way to eat, particularly for someone like me who is trying to manage type 2 diabetes, says chef Caldesi

I now know that having proper breaks between meals — also known as intermittent fasting — is accepted by many doctors as a healthier way to eat, particularly for someone like me who is trying to manage type 2 diabetes, says chef Caldesi

Over time, as I’ll explain, excess sugar built up in my bloodstream and caused terrible problems, including blurry vision, loss of feeling in my feet and arthritis.

I now know that having proper breaks between meals — also known as intermittent fasting — is accepted by many doctors as a healthier way to eat, particularly for someone like me who is trying to manage type 2 diabetes.

I weighed 16st when I was diagnosed eight years ago with type 2 diabetes, aged 59. The condition, which affects five million Britons, essentially makes it difficult for your body to process sugar.

After this, it would be another two years before I worked out that changing my diet to low carb — and crucially altering how often I ate — would transform my life.

The low-carb diet I adopted with the help of my wife Katie, a food writer, not only restored me to health, but also now forms the basis of the delicious recipes we have been sharing in the Daily Mail all this week, in the hope of inspiring other people to reap the same health benefits I did.

These recipes are taken from our new book The Diabetes Weight-Loss Cookbook, written in conjunction with GP Dr David Unwin, whose pioneering work chimes with my own experiences of low carb and diabetes.

Before I discovered low carb and intermittent fasting, however, my weight ballooned up to 17st 7lb and I couldn’t even play football with my young sons.

But as soon as Katie and I tried the new diet, the results began to speak for themselves. Within days, I was feeling mentally clearer than I had for years. Within months the weight was falling off.

Now I have reversed my diabetes entirely. It’s not an exaggeration to say I feel like a new man. But I’ve learned that it was not just what I ate that was to blame, but also the way I ate.

For me, this meant constant snacking — and also eating breakfast. We’re always told this meal is key to losing weight, with the theory being that if you get too hungry during the course of the morning, you are more likely to give in to a mid-morning snack or over-eat at lunchtime. However, this was not true for me.

In fact, I learnt there are good scientific reasons why having breaks between meals, and even skipping breakfast, is potentially a good habit to adopt.

Advice from Dr Unwin and my own research has made me realise how dangerous snacking is, because you are constantly bombarding your system with sugar and insulin.

Now I have reversed my diabetes entirely. It¿s not an exaggeration to say I feel like a new man. But I¿ve learned that it was not just what I ate that was to blame, but also the way I ate, writes chef Caldesi

Now I have reversed my diabetes entirely. It¿s not an exaggeration to say I feel like a new man. But I¿ve learned that it was not just what I ate that was to blame, but also the way I ate, writes chef Caldesi

Now I have reversed my diabetes entirely. It’s not an exaggeration to say I feel like a new man. But I’ve learned that it was not just what I ate that was to blame, but also the way I ate, writes chef Caldesi

Insulin clears the excess sugar in the blood by pushing it into the liver, where a little is converted to glycogen (an energy reserve). The rest is stored as fat. This helps to explain why weight gain, especially around the middle, is common in type 2 diabetes — it affects nine out of ten of those with the condition.

High-starch foods — which may include many you believe to be good for you, such as cereal or wholemeal toast — digest down into sugar, causing your blood glucose, and therefore insulin levels, to spike too high and too often.

You gain weight, but you also feel the effects of a ‘sugar dip’ as insulin overreacts to bring sugar levels crashing down. You may recognise this as tiredness and lethargy. If you then reach for a biscuit to perk you up, the sugar and insulin cycle begins all over again.

C onversely, having breaks between meals can have health benefits. When you are fasting, your digestive system gets a rest and your body can concentrate on other vital jobs, such as keeping your immune system strong and balancing hormones. It also helps to reduce your insulin to more stable levels.

This is why some experts — including Dr Unwin — now advise us to aim for three meals a day without snacking in between. At first I found it hard not to snack, as I had cravings for carbs and sugary foods. So I tried to phase the habit out gradually and ate low-carb snacks instead. I would treat myself to a handful of walnuts or almonds, or a small pot of natural yoghurt.

But I never had problems missing breakfast. The truth is I never liked it much anyway. Now I have a couple of cups of coffee in the morning, and I feel clear, alert and happy until my first meal, which is lunch at around 1pm.

I have a few nuts in the middle of the afternoon most days, and I’ll eat supper at around 8pm — then not worry about food again until lunch the next day.

My advice is to eat only when you are hungry, and not out of habit or when convention tells you to. If, like me, you don’t feel you need breakfast, for example, then don’t eat it.

If your goal is to lose weight, you may wish to experiment with longer periods of intermittent fasting — but do consult your GP first if you take medication.

Taking the idea of fasting further, you could try leaving 24 hours between meals once a week; fast between supper on day one and break it at supper on day two. You might be surprised at how empowering it feels, and there are often knock-on effects in that your appetite becomes more controlled.

I now eat much less than I used to, yet I also feel less hungry. You may struggle with your perception of hunger between meals at first, however — I did.

But you will soon adjust. Once your body can switch to fat-burning mode, burning calories from stored fat, it becomes easy to maintain having gaps between meals. Instead of grabbing a snack, have a glass of water or a hot drink, and focus on how much you will enjoy the next meal.

The beauty about the low-carb plan that we have been sharing in the Daily Mail this week is that it is flexible. You can set your own health goals and carb limits, and decide how often you eat.

But try to eat less often. It may seem strange at first, but once you get used to it, your body will thank you for it.

Note: if you are taking medication or are worried about your health, consult your gp before undertaking any fasting regime or significant change in diet.

 You CAN tuck into takeaways… just follow these orders

CHOOSE YOUR TIPPLE WITH CARE

Caldesi also advised care with alcohol, and to keep within 14 units per week

Caldesi also advised care with alcohol, and to keep within 14 units per week

Caldesi also advised care with alcohol, and to keep within 14 units per week

Alcohol is another thing you should view as a treat — after all, you don’t drink it because you are thirsty.

Beer, lager and cider are out if you are watching your blood sugar levels — per pint, they contain up to 18g carbs (which has the equivalent effect on blood sugar levels as 4 ½ tsp of sugar), hence beer bellies.

Wine is a better choice, but keep well within 14 units per week.

The 14 units guideline equates to around six 175ml glasses. Red wine may have slightly more health benefits as it contains more resveratrol, an antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage.

Being low carb means my alcohol tolerance has dropped; two small glasses of wine are all I can cope with. I occasionally have a glass or two of champagne, which tends to contain relatively little sugar.

When people yearn for a drink it is often because they are craving sugar to wake them up. Instead of reaching for the corkscrew, make a low-carb drink in a wine glass. Try sparkling water with a tablespoon of orange juice and a dash of Angostura bitters, or my own summer favourite: mint, lime, ginger and soda water.

The cravings will pass — try distraction techniques or a herbal tea. Not only will your waistline and blood sugar levels thank you for it, but you’ll soon feel more energetic in the mornings.

 

Who doesn’t love the odd treat? I certainly do — but there’s no reason you have to punish yourself because you’re on a low-carb diet.

Food is almost always a part of major life events, such as weddings and milestone birthdays.

It’s also often central to simply socialising with friends. And it’s essential that you find a way to take part, so you don’t feel left out just because you’ve decided to adopt a new eating plan.

Apart from anything else, it will help you stay motivated to stick to a new lifestyle that should make you feel healthier, slimmer and happier.

If you’re carrying more weight than you should, or trying to manage type 2 diabetes, a treat needs to be just once in a while.

You need to change your mindset to accept this and alter the way you reward yourself.

On my high-carb diet, I used to reward myself with food all the time, from sugary cappuccinos to chocolate bars and Italian choux cream buns.

But following my diagnosis with type 2 diabetes in 2011, I had to take stock of my health — which included weighing 17st 7lb at my heaviest, my sight failing, nerve damage in my feet and arthritis.

After I discovered low carb and my health began to transform, I knew I had to change the way I treated myself.

Losing more than three stone and reversing my diabetes — along with feeling as though I had been granted a new lease of life — motivated me to keep going with low carb despite my sugar cravings.

I still allowed myself a mid-afternoon snack, but ditched sugary foods for a handful of walnuts with an apple or some berries, or a natural yoghurt.

Sometimes I allowed myself a couple of squares of 90 per cent dark chocolate, as this is relatively low in sugar, but still makes me feel I have had a treat. Dark chocolate is also a source of magnesium and antioxidants.

If you’re anything like me, you may find your palate changes as you include more fresh foods in your diet.

An apple could taste sweeter than you remember, for example. So might a glass of milk — the lovely, slightly sweet taste comes from a natural form of sugar found in dairy called lactose. Milk is also satisfying because of the fat and protein content.

QUICK AND EASY IDEAS for tasty snacks

You don’t have to forgo snacks and picnic treats with low carb — just make sure you plan ahead so you’ll be ready with bite-sized morsels that don’t contain starch or sugar.

Our favourite ideas include slices of turkey or chicken breast, olives or red peppers with a yoghurt-based dip. Prepare your own tzatziki with natural yoghurt, chopped mint and cucumber, for instance.

You could try rolling up ham with cream cheese inside. Or how about some celery sticks with peanut butter as a protein-based, filling snack?

For a touch of luxury, we always have a punnet of strawberries or raspberries with some Greek yoghurt or a couple of squares of dark chocolate.

Make sure the chocolate contains around 90 per cent cocoa solids, and wrap up a couple of squares so you can’t eat the whole bar!

For a savoury option, you might enjoy 30g of mixed cheese cubes, salted pecans and olives.

You can always take a thermos of coffee to perk you up, too.

Why dining out isn’t off the menu

When ordering in a restaurant, look for good-quality protein and vegetables. Don’t be afraid to ask for slight variations to the menu, such as ordering two starters rather than a main course, or requesting salad instead of chips.

You could also ask for the bread basket to be removed to discourage nibbling. Instead, snack on olives or drink water until the food arrives.

Puddings can be a challenge, so choose a coffee to finish your meal, or order fruit or cheese (without the crackers).

If the occasional takeaway is your guilty pleasure, reduce the overall carbs. Have a curry, but not the rice or naan bread; order a kebab, not the pitta; or eat a burger, without the bun. Try asking for extra salad and low-carb vegetable dishes to bulk out your meal.

NOTE: Always consult your GP before starting a new diet plan, particularly if you take prescribed medication.

Recipes by Katie Caldesi. The Diabetes Weight-Loss Cookbook by Katie and Giancarlo Caldesi is published by Kyle Books at £20. To order a copy for £16 (offer valid until April 27, 2019; P&P free), visit mailshop.co.uk/books or call 0844 571 0640.

DIABETES-BEATING RECIPES 

Butter chicken

The curry includes eight chicken thighs

The curry includes eight chicken thighs

The curry includes eight chicken thighs

This easy, creamy curry doesn’t have the sugar or commercial oil that a takeaway contains. Serve with cauliflower rice.

SERVES 4

l 8 chicken thighs

l A little salt

l 2tbsp lemon juice

l 4 garlic cloves

l 1 tbsp fresh ginger, peeled and grated

l 2 tsp chilli powder

l 2 tbsp ghee, butter or coconut oil

l 2 onions, finely chopped

l Small green or red chillies

l 2 tsp ground cumin

l 1 tsp tumeric

l 1 tsp ground corianjder

l 50g butter

l 400g can of plum tomatoes

l A few coriander leaves

Put the chicken into a bowl and mix in salt, lemon juice, half the garlic and ginger, and the chilli powder. Leave to infuse for 15 minutes. Fry the chicken thighs on both sides until golden brown. Set aside. To make the sauce, fry the ghee with onion and a little salt until softened. Add the remaining garlic, ginger, chillies and the spices and cook for copuple of minutes. Add the butter, tomatoes and half a can of water. Cook for 15 minutes. Add the chicken thighs and continue to cook, covered with a lid, for around 45 minutes or until they are cooked. Season to taste. Add the coriander and serve. 

Creamy pork and mushroom stroganoff with courgette ribbons

Giancarlo recalls creamy stroganoff with gherkins served in London restaurants when he came to the UK and worked as a waiter. Now we eat it with courgette ribbons.

SERVES 4

Per serving of stroganoff: Calories, 320; carbohydrates, 7.6g; protein, 31g; fat, 16g; fibre, 1.2g

Per serving of courgette ribbons: Calories, 117; carbohydrates, 3.6g; protein, 3.7g; fat, 8.8g; fibre, 4g

Caldesi says that the Stroganoff should be topped with parsley before serving

Caldesi says that the Stroganoff should be topped with parsley before serving

Caldesi says that the Stroganoff should be topped with parsley before serving

l 250g mushrooms, sliced

l 1 white onion, finely chopped

l 2 cloves of garlic, crushed

l Salt and freshly ground black pepper

l 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

l A knob of butter

l 500g pork tenderloin

l 2 tsp unsmoked paprika

l 100ml white wine

l 200ml sour cream

l 2 tsp Dijon mustard

l 1 tbsp lemon juice

l 65g gherkins, chopped

l 2 tbsp parsley, chopped

For courgette ribbons

SERVES 6

l 4 medium courgettes, cut into thin strips

l 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

l Salt and freshly ground black pepper

l A knob of butter

Fry the mushrooms, onion and garlic with seasoning in the oil and half the butter over a medium heat for 7-10 minutes, or until the water has evaporated and the onion has softened.

Put the pork in a bowl with paprika and seasoning.

Toss through to coat it, then add it to the pan and stir. Fry for a few minutes then add the wine. Let it reduce for 5 minutes, then add the sour cream, remaining butter, mustard, lemon juice and gherkins. Adjust seasoning and serve when the pork is cooked through. Meanwhile, toss the courgette with oil and season, then spread on a tray in curls. Bake at 220c/gas mark 7 until cooked. Serve with butter and stroganoff on the side. Top with parsley.

 Cabbage and spicy prawn stir-fry

This recipe shows that it is easy to replace starchy noodles and shop-bought sugary sauces in a stir-fry with shredded vegetables and a simple combination of flavourings. Make sure you have the ingredients prepared before you start, as this is fast cooking over a high heat.

SERVES 4

Per serving: Calories, 296; carbohydrates, 16g; protein, 29g; fat, 21g; fibre, 9.1g

King prawns should be placed into the stir-fry still shelled

King prawns should be placed into the stir-fry still shelled

King prawns should be placed into the stir-fry still shelled 

l 500g jumbo or king prawns, heads on

l 1 tbsp sesame seeds

l 4 tbsp coconut oil

l 2 cloves garlic, roughly chopped

l 1 chilli, sliced, added to taste

l 50g ginger, peeled and finely chopped

l 8 spring onions, finely chopped

l 900g savoy cabbage, shredded

l 100ml hot water

l 4 tbsp soy sauce

l Freshly ground black pepper

l 2 tbsp toasted sesame oil

l Handful of coriander, roughly chopped

Peel the shells (if there are any) from the prawns, leaving the head intact. Make a shallow cut in the back of the prawns and remove the black vein, then set aside. Toast the sesame seeds in a wok over a medium heat, until golden brown. Remove and leave to cool.

Fry the garlic, chilli, ginger and spring onions for 4-6 minutes, stirring frequently over a high heat. Add the cabbage and the water and stir-fry.

When the water has evaporated, stir through the soy sauce and black pepper.

Add the prawns and sesame oil to the wok and fry until the prawns are cooked through. Press the heads with a wooden spoon to release any juices for flavour.

Serve straight away in warm bowls scattered with sesame seeds and coriander.

Fish stew

This is traditionally made with black dried lemons, available at Middle Eastern shops.

SERVES 6

Per serving: Calories, 233; carbohydrates, 11g; protein, 36g; fat, 3g; fibre, 3g

The fish stew includes cod fillets and three black dried lemons

The fish stew includes cod fillets and three black dried lemons

The fish stew includes cod fillets and three black dried lemons

l 1 medium onion, finely chopped

l 2 cloves garlic, finely chopped

l 1 chilli, chopped and added to taste

l Salt and freshly ground black pepper

l 5 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

l 2 x 400g tin of plum tomatoes

l 2 tbsp tomato concentrate

l ½ tsp coriander powder

l Turmeric and cumin, added to taste

l 25g fresh coriander, finely chopped

l 3 black dried lemons or 1 tbsp preserved lemons

l 800g cod fillet, cut into portions

For the fish:

l 1 tsp turmeric

l 2 tsp ground cumin

l 2 tbsp extra virgin olive oil or ghee

Cook the onion, garlic and chilli with seasoning in the oil over a gentle heat until soft. Add the tomatoes, fill the cans with water and add this too. Add spices, fresh coriander and lemons. Cook until you have a thick sauce. Season the fish with spices and fry until lightly browned. Transfer to the pan with the tomato sauce and cook through. Serve with cauliflower rice.

Roasted lemon, thyme and ricotta with Mediterranean vegetables

Perfect if friends come round for supper. Alter the veg according to the season. Enjoy with a low-carb bread or a crisp green salad.

SERVES 6

Per serving: Calories, 560; carbohydrates, 9.7g; protein, 35g; fat, 41g; fibre, 3.4g

Ricotta with Mediterranean vegetables includes aubergine, courgette, mushrooms and red onion

Ricotta with Mediterranean vegetables includes aubergine, courgette, mushrooms and red onion

Ricotta with Mediterranean vegetables includes aubergine, courgette, mushrooms and red onion

l 500g ricotta

l 1 egg

l 100g Parmesan

l 2 tsp thyme leaves, chopped

l 1 large lemon

l Freshly ground black pepper

l 1 red pepper, cut into 3cm pieces

l 1 aubergine, cut into 3cm pieces

l 1 courgette, cut into 3cm pieces

l 200g mushrooms, sliced

l 1 red onion, cut into wedges

l 12 cherry tomatoes

l 3 garlic cloves, lightly crushed

l A few sprigs of thyme

l 6 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

l Few basil leaves, roughly torn

Heat the oven to 180c/gas mark 4. Select an ovenproof dish suitable to bake and serve the cheese in.

Drain the ricotta and put into a bowl with the egg, Parmesan and thyme leaves.

Cut a slice from the middle of the lemon and set aside. Finely zest the rest of it and add to the bowl with the seasoning. Mix thoroughly and pour into your dish. Drizzle a little oil on top and add the slice of lemon.

Put the dish onto a large roasting tray. Put the vegetables, garlic and thyme sprigs into a mixing bowl and toss with the remaining oil and seasoning.

Arrange the vegetables around the cheese on the roasting tray and bake for 25 minutes.

Scatter over the basil and serve.

 One-pot pork stew with leeks and celeriac

This hearty stew from central Macedonia is packed with flavour from the sweet leeks, earthy celeriac and lemon.

SERVES 6

Per serving: Calories, 444; carbohydrates, 3.6g; protein, 39g; fat, 27g; fibre, 3.7g

Pork stew should be divided into bowls with a wedge of lemon before serving

Pork stew should be divided into bowls with a wedge of lemon before serving

Pork stew should be divided into bowls with a wedge of lemon before serving

l 1kg pork shoulder, cut into pieces

l 5 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

l 50g butter

l 2 tsp salt

l Freshly ground black pepper

l 2 leeks, cut into 2.5cm pieces

l 350g celeriac, cut into 2.5cm pieces

l 3 celery sticks, cut into 1cm pieces

l 150ml white wine

l 1 litre vegetable stock, or water

l Juice of half a lemon, plus wedge

l 3 egg yolks

l A few celery leaves

Preheat oven to 160c/gas mark 3. Brown the pork in the oil and half the butter for around 10-15 minutes, until caramelised. Add salt and pepper. Let the water evaporate then remove the pork.

Add the vegetables to the pan with the remaining olive oil and saute for 5 minutes, or until lightly browned. Pour in the wine and let it reduce for 5 minutes.

Add the stock and stir, ensuring the meat and vegetables are immersed. Cover and put into the oven for 90 minutes. Stir in the remaining butter and season to taste.

Mix the lemon juice with the egg yolks. When the pork is tender, remove from the heat.

Push the stew to one side to create a pool of liquid. Pour the egg and lemon mixture slowly into the pool, stirring quickly.

Divide the stew into bowls with a wedge of lemon, celery leaves and black pepper, then serve.

Giancarlo’s lamb one-pot supper

This rich and unctuous casserole is perfect for a family supper. The addition of low-carb swede adds natural sweetness and helps to thicken the sauce.

SERVES 6

Per serving: Calories, 697; carbohydrates, 7.9g; protein, 57g; fat, 47g; fibre, 2.8g

The lamb one-pot supper is perfect for a family supper according to the chef

The lamb one-pot supper is perfect for a family supper according to the chef

The lamb one-pot supper is perfect for a family supper according to the chef

l 1.2kg stewing lamb, diced into 4cm pieces

l 5 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

l 2 tsp salt

l Freshly ground black pepper

l 50g butter

l 1 onion, thickly sliced

l 350g swede, cut into 2cm cubes

l 200g chestnut mushrooms

l 2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed

l 1 sprig of rosemary

l 200ml white wine

l 3 tbsp tomato puree

l 250g baby spinach leaves

Put the lamb with the oil in a pan over a medium heat. Allow the water from it to evaporate for around 10 minutes, or until it browns all over.

Use a slotted spoon to transfer the lamb to a bowl, leaving the oil in the pan.

Now add the butter to the pan and fry the vegetables, garlic and rosemary for 5-7 minutes, or until lightly browned.

Add the lamb back into the pan and pour in the wine.

Bring it to the boil and reduce for 5 minutes, then add the tomato puree and 300ml of hot water.

Stir through and simmer.

Cover the casserole and let it cook for 90 minutes, or until the meat is tender and falls apart easily. Add a little more water if it looks dry.

When you are ready to eat, stir in the spinach leaves and replace the lid. Cook for a few minutes until they have wilted, and serve.

Sausage, leek and pepper casserole with cabbage topping

We can cook this dish quickly to feed our ever-hungry teenagers in less than 30 minutes. Most sausage casseroles contain potatoes or beans but, to keep the carbs down, we add a buttery layer of savoy cabbage on top. The bright green leaves cook quickly, add colour and more fibre to the meal.

SERVES 4 Per serving: Calories, 471; carbohydrates, 18g; protein, 14g; fat, 36g; fibre, 8g

Sausage, leek and pepper casserole should only be served when the cabbage is tender but still green

Sausage, leek and pepper casserole should only be served when the cabbage is tender but still green

Sausage, leek and pepper casserole should only be served when the cabbage is tender but still green

l 6 good-quality pork sausages

l 1 leek

l 1 red pepper

l 3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil or pork dripping

l 2 sprigs of rosemary or thyme

l Salt and freshly ground black pepper

l 400g tin of cherry tomatoes

l 1 tsp smoked paprika (optional)

l Half a head of savoy cabbage

l 20g butter

Cut each of the sausages into five pieces and the leek into circles the thickness of your finger. Cut the peppers into roughly 3cm squares.

Fry them all with the rosemary and seasoning in a wide frying pan or casserole dish with the oil or dripping for around 10 minutes, until lightly browned all over.

Add the tomatoes and paprika (if using), stir through and bring to the boil.

Turn the heat to low, cover and cook for another 10 minutes or until the leeks are soft.

Remove the rosemary.

Tear the leaves of the cabbage into roughly 5cm pieces and lay on top of the casserole. Add flecks of the butter over the top and season with plenty of black pepper.

Put the lid on again for 5-8 minutes, or until the cabbage is tender but still lively and green.

Serve in warm bowls.

 

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